纸尿裤中的化学品 Chemicals in disposable nappies

来自www.DrMomma.org, 2011年4月

对于当今崇尚便捷与临时用品的生活方式,纸尿裤似乎是一项必需品。尽管使用很广,合成材质的一次性纸尿裤中经常含有关系到长期健康问题的化学品。一项发表在《环境卫生纪要》(1999)的研究称,纸尿裤应当被视作可能导致或恶化儿童哮喘、呼吸道问题的一项因素。纸尿裤中的化学品还容易引发婴儿柔软、敏感的皮肤出现皮疹和过敏反应。

From www.DrMomma.org, April 2011

Disposable diapers seem to be a necessity in today's lifestyle of convenience and temporary items. Though they are commonly used, synthetic, single-use diapers often contain chemicals linked to long-term health conditions. A study published in the Archives of Environmental Health (1999) states that disposable diapers should be considered to be a factor that may cause or worsen childhood asthma and respiratory problems. The soft, sensitive skin of babies is also prone to rashes and allergic reactions due to the chemicals in disposable diapers.

二恶英

大部分纸尿裤都用氯来漂白,从而产生一种名为二恶英的副产品,它可以渗入周围环境和纸尿裤中。据美国环境保护署(EPA)所述,二恶英是科学界已知的最具毒性的化学品之一,并被EPA列为高度致癌物质。根据世界卫生组织所述,接触二恶英可能导致皮肤反应和肝功能改变,以及对免疫系统、神经系统、内分泌系统和生殖功能的损害。

Dioxins

Most disposable diapers are bleached white with chlorine, resulting in a byproduct called dioxins that leach into the environment and the diapers. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), dioxins are among the most toxic chemicals known to science and are listed by the EPA as highly carcinogenic chemicals. According to the World Health Organization, exposure to dioxins may cause skin reactions and altered liver function, as well as impairments to the immune system, nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive functions.

聚丙烯酸钠

聚丙烯酸钠是一种具有超强吸水能力的化合物(又名SAP),被许多纸尿裤用作填充物。它由来自树木的纤维素和聚丙烯酸酯晶体混合而成。此化学品可吸收液体并在尿裤衬里上产生表面张力来吸附液体并防止渗漏。聚丙烯酸钠常常在宝宝的皮肤上可以见到——呈现为胶状小晶体,并被认为关系到皮肤发炎和呼吸系统问题。出于对中毒性休克综合征的担忧月经棉塞中不再使用此化学品。由于最近20年才开始在纸尿裤中使用,目前尚无关于聚丙烯酸钠对婴儿健康长期影响的研究。

Sodium Polyacrylate

Sodium polycarbonate is a super absorbent chemical compound (also called SAP) that is used in the fillers of many disposable diapers. It is composed of cellulose processed from trees that is mixed with crystals of polyacrylate. This chemical absorbs fluids and creates surface tension in the lining of the diaper to bind fluids and prevent leakage. Sodium polyacrylate is often visible as small gel-like crystals on the skin of babies and is thought to be linked to skin irritations and respiratory problems. This chemical was removed from tampons due to toxic shock syndrome concerns. As it has only been used in diapers for the last two decades, there is not yet research on the long-term health effects of sodium polyacrylate on babies.

三丁基锡(TBT)

许多纸尿裤中含有一种名为三丁基锡(TBT)的化学品。据EPA所述,该有毒污染物对水生生物极为有害,并能引发水生生物的内分泌(荷尔蒙)紊乱。TBT是一种污染性的化学品,不分解只会存留在环境和我们的食物链中。TBT也是杀灭感染性微生物的杀菌剂中的成分。此外,根据美国生物科学院发表的研究,三丁基锡可触发促使脂肪细胞生长的基因,导致人的肥胖。

Tributyl-tin (TBT)

Many disposable diapers contain a chemical called tributyl-tin (TBT). According to the EPA, this toxic pollutant is extremely harmful to aquatic (water) life and causes endocrine (hormonal) disruptions in aquatic organisms. TBT is a polluting chemical that does not degrade but remains in the environment and in our food chain. TBT is also an ingredient used in biocides to kill infecting organisms. Additionally, according to research published by the American Institute of Biological Sciences, tributyl-tin can trigger genes that promote the growth of fat cells, causing obesity in humans.

挥发性有机化合物(VOC)

纸尿裤中经常含有挥发性有机化合物(VOC)。这些化学品包括乙苯、甲苯、二甲苯和二戊烯。据EPA所述,挥发性有机化合物可导致眼、鼻、喉发炎,头痛,肝、肾、中枢神经系统损害以及癌症。

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Disposable diapers frequently contain chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These include chemicals such as ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene and dipentene. According to the EPA, VOCs can cause eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches, damage to the liver, kidney and central nervous system as well as cancers.

其它化学品

纸尿裤中经常使用的其它化学品包括染料、香料、塑料和凡士林。粘合性化学品用在纸尿裤起闭合作用的粘胶带上,染料用在花色和纸尿裤的标签上,而香料则用在一些纸尿裤里来掩盖异味。

Other Chemicals

Other chemicals often used in disposable diapers include dyes, fragrances, plastics and petrolatums. Adhesive chemicals are used in the sticky tabs to close the diapers and dyes are used to color and make the patterns and labels that mark diapers. Perfumes and fragrances are used in some disposable diapers to help mask odors.

完。

ENDS.

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